U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Upcoming Live Web Events

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CLU-IN's ongoing series of Internet Seminars are free, web-based slide presentations with a companion audio portion. We provide two options for accessing the audio portion of the seminar: by phone line or streaming audio simulcast. More information and registration for all Internet Seminars is available by selecting the individual seminar below. Not able to make one of our live offerings? You may also view archived seminars.

July 2015
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Download seminar information in iCalendar formatProgress in Research: Reducing Expo...

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Download seminar information in iCalendar formatITRC Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy

Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy
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Download seminar information in iCalendar formatITRC Remedy Selection for Contamina...

Remedy Selection for Contaminated Sediments
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Download seminar information in iCalendar formatITRC Integrated DNAPL Site Characte...

Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization
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Download seminar information in iCalendar formatSRI Webinar Series: Green Infrastru...

Download seminar information in iCalendar formatAnalytical Chemistry Data Review - ...

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Analytical Chemistry Data Review - Volatile Organics Data

This webinar is cover review and validation of Volatile Organics data. In this webinar, the instructor will discuss the data quality requirements of the EPA methods for waste (solid, liquid), including Methods 8260 and 8015, along with preparation methods 5030, 5031, 5032, and 5035. The data review process and documentation will be discussed using the 2014 National Functional Guidelines for Superfund Organic Methods Data Review. Participants will be asked to review a data package prior to the live webinar.

Analytical Chemistry Data Review - High Resolution GC/MS Data

This webinar will provide a review and validation of dioxin/furan and CB-Congener data. In this webinar, the instructor will discuss the data quality requirements of Methods 1613, 8290, and 1668, along with the 2011 National Functional Guidelines for Chlorinated Dioxin/Furan Data Review. Data packages and supplemental course materials will be shared with registrants shortly before the live event which should be reviewed prior to attending this webinar.

SRI Webinar Series: Green Infrastructure: Reusing Superfund Sites and Promoting Sustainable Communities

This webinar will introduce green infrastructure elements in the context of reusing and revitalizing Superfund sites. Presenters will share site-specific reuse projects with green infrastructure elements such as habitat conservation, stormwater management, and recreational opportunities that increase quality of life for communities near the contaminated land. The webinar will also share green infrastructure considerations and opportunities for future projects looking to sustainably return contaminated lands to productive and beneficial use for communities.

SRI Webinar Series: Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) Perspectives on Superfund Site Reuse

A potentially responsible party, or PRP, is an individual or company that is potentially responsible for contamination problems at a Superfund site. Whenever possible, EPA requires PRPs to clean up hazardous waste sites the PRP may have contaminated. Many PRPs not only perform the cleanup, but also seek ways to return the site to beneficial use for the community and maximize the extent of land use on the site. Presenters on this webinar will include representatives from several PRP groups who have taken an active role in facilitating the beneficial use of sites they manage and who have worked collaboratively with EPA over many years to ensure that both the cleanup and the reuse of the property remain protective of human health and the environment.

Progress in Research: Reducing Exposure to Mercury, Arsenic, and Asbestos

This Superfund Research Program (SRP) Progress in Research webinar highlights exciting research from two SRP Centers. Scientists at the Dartmouth College SRP Center are working to reduce exposures to arsenic and mercury and to better understand how exposure to these contaminants leads to disease. You will also hear from scientists at the University of Pennsylvania SRP Center who are conducting research on asbestos waste, and how that waste affects human health.

Sources and Protracted Effects of Early Life Exposure to Arsenic and Mercury (Dartmouth College SRP Center, P42ES007373)

Despite growing concern and increasing research on arsenic and mercury, there are significant knowledge gaps, especially with regard to the very low levels of exposure found in the U.S. The Dartmouth College Toxic Metals SRP Center conducts multidisciplinary research to identify major sources of arsenic and mercury exposure and to better understand how early life exposure to these contaminants affects health. One project is studying a group of pregnant women who use private wells in New Hampshire where arsenic is a known contaminant to determine whether arsenic influences glucose and blood pressure control during pregnancy and to identify potential genetic susceptibility for these effects. Center members are also researching arsenic exposure from drinking water, rice, and other foods, and the effects of arsenic on the immune response to bacterial infections of the lungs. Their work also includes evaluation of the uptake, transport, and storage of arsenic in rice that could inform the development of new types of rice that accumulate less arsenic. Another area of study is methylmercury accumulation in fish and how environmental factors affect mercury in estuarine food webs, which are important pathways of exposure to humans. The Dartmouth SRP Center conducts research at three Superfund sites: the Androscoggin River in Berlin, New Hampshire, the Callahan Mine in Brooksville, Maine, and the Berry's Creek mercury site in Hackensack, New Jersey.

Asbestos Fate, Exposure, Remediation, and Adverse Health Effects (University of Pennsylvania SRP Center, P42ES023720)

The University of Pennsylvania (Penn) SRP Center is conducting research to solve problems and find solutions related to chrysotile asbestos fate, exposure, remediation, and adverse health effects, such as mesothelioma. The Center is driven by community-based concerns from people in Pennsylvania who live close to one of the largest asbestos Superfund sites in the country — the Ambler BoRit site. Each project in the Penn-SRP is driven by six community-based questions. Thus, Center researchers are working to identify biomarkers that indicate a person's risk to asbestos exposure and could potentially improve human health in the community. Researchers are also examining how social, lifestyle, and economic factors influence asbestos exposure and incidence of mesothelioma as well as developing safe, non-toxic agents such as flaxseed that might offer protection against asbestos-induced lung diseases. A tumor suppressor gene knockout mouse model, which is susceptible to mesothelioma is being used to study the pathogenesis of disease. Finally, researchers are investigating the remediation of asbestos-contaminated sites using fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium leptobactrum) and the mobility and fate of asbestos particles through soil and groundwater. The Penn SRP is focused on the BoRit EPA region 3 Superfund site in the Ambler Borough, Upper Dublin, and Whitpain townships. Findings will be generally applicable to the other asbestos Superfund sites in the nation.

Progress in Research: TCE, PCBs, and Phthalates - Exposure, Mechanisms of Disease, and Clean-Up Remedies

This Superfund Research Program (SRP) Progress in Research webinar series highlights promising research from two SRP Centers. Researchers at the Northeastern University SRP Center are studying chlorinated solvents and phthalates, contaminants that could be linked to high preterm birthrates in Puerto Rico. The University of Kentucky SRP Center explores how nutrition and exercise might offer protection from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) toxicity and are developing new sustainable remediation approaches using nanotechnology.

Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (Northeastern University SRP Center, P42ES017198)

The Northeastern University Superfund Research Center "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats," or PROTECT, brings together researchers from multiple disciplines to study the transport, exposure, health impact, and remediation of contaminants. Center researchers are particularly focused on chlorinated solvents and phthalates, which are commonly found at Superfund sites, as both suspect and model agents in the high preterm birth rates in Puerto Rico. To better understand demographic, environmental, and genetic contributors to preterm birth, they are collecting information on exposure and health outcomes in the PROTECT cohort, which includes women from three hospitals in Puerto Ricoís north coast with high rates of preterm birth and their affiliated physicianís clinics. They have developed a tool to extract contaminants from urine samples from the cohort and water samples from the field and are also developing solar-powered green remediation tools to remove TCE from groundwater. They are also investigating the transport and exposure pathways of phthalates and trichloroethylene (TCE) in karst groundwater systems.

Nutrition and Superfund Chemical Toxicity (University of Kentucky Superfund Research Program Center, P42ES007380)

Due to their relative chemical stability and ubiquity in the environment, chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCBs and TCE pose significant health risks and enduring remediation challenges. The University of Kentucky (UK) SRP Center is investigating nutrition and exercise as protective mechanisms against the toxicity of PCBs. Projects are advancing our understanding of toxicant-induced mechanisms of disease, including atherosclerosis, postnatal complications, and diabetes; and introducing sustainable approaches for PCB and TCE remediation, such as green nanomembrane remediation devices. Use of PCBs as a model contaminant will advance understanding of inflammatory diseases associated with exposure to persistent chlorinated organic pollutants. The UK SRP is working with communities and conducting research at three Kentucky Superfund sites: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Red Penn in Louisville, and Dayhoit in Harlan, Kentucky.
Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
Seminars Sponsored by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council

Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents present a daunting environmental challenge, especially at sites with dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) still present. Restoring sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents to typical regulatory criteria (low parts-per-billion concentrations) within a generation (~20 years) has proven exceptionally difficult, although there have been successes. Site managers must recognize that complete restoration of many of these sites will require prolonged treatment and involve several remediation technologies. To make as much progress as possible requires a thorough understanding of the site, clear descriptions of achievable objectives, and use of more than one remedial technology. Making efficient progress will require an adaptive management approach, and may also require transitioning from one remedy to another as the optimum range of a technique is surpassed. Targeted monitoring should be used and re-evaluation should be done periodically.

This ITRC Integrated Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Site Strategy (IDSS-1, 2011) technical and regulatory guidance document will assist site managers in development of an integrated site remedial strategy. This course highlights five important features of an IDSS including:

  1. A conceptual site model (CSM) that is based on reliable characterization and an understanding of the subsurface conditions that control contaminant transport, reactivity, and distribution
  2. Remedial objectives and performance metrics that are clear, concise, and measureable
  3. Treatment technologies applied to optimize performance and take advantage of potential synergistic effects
  4. Monitoring based on interim and final cleanup objectives, the selected treatment technology and approach, and remedial performance goals
  5. Reevaluating the strategy repeatedly and even modifying the approach when objectives are not being met or when alternative methods offer similar or better outcomes at lower cost

This IDSS guidance and training is intended for regulators, remedial project managers, and remediation engineers responsible for sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Because the subject matter is complex, this guidance assumes a functional understanding of the field and is targeted towards experienced users; however, novices will benefit through descriptions and references of the latest evolution of site characterization challenges; realistic planning of site restoration; evolving treatment techniques; and evaluating, monitoring and interpreting mass transport in the subsurface aqueous and vapor phases. While the primary focus of the document is on DNAPL sites, other types of contaminated sites (e.g. petroleum, mixed contaminants, etc.) can use the same fundamental process described in this guidance.

For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of the flow diagram, Figure 1-2 on page 6 of the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, ITRC Integrated Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Site Strategy (IDSS-1, 2011) and available as a 1-page PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/IDSS/ITRC-IDSS-1-Figure1-2.pdf.

Remedy Selection for Contaminated Sediments

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council The sediments underlying many of our nationís major waterways are contaminated with toxic pollutants from past industrial activities. Cleaning up contaminated sediments is expensive and technically-challenging. Sediment sites are unique, complex, and require a multidisciplinary approach and often project managers lack sediments experience. ITRC developed the technical and regulatory guidance, Remedy Selection for Contaminated Sediments (CS-2, 2014), to assist decision-makers in identifying which contaminated sediment management technology is most favorable based on an evaluation of site specific physical, sediment, contaminant, and land and waterway use characteristics. The document provides a remedial selection framework to help identify favorable technologies, and identifies additional factors (feasibility, cost, stakeholder concerns, and others) that need to be considered as part of the remedy selection process. This ITRC training course supports participants with applying the technical and regulatory guidance as a tool to overcome the remedial challenges posed by contaminated sediment sites. Participants learn how to:
  • Identify site-specific characteristics and data needed for site decision making
  • Evaluate potential technologies based on site information
  • Select the most favorable contaminant management technology for their site
For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of Figure 2-1, Framework for Sediment Remedy Evaluation. It is available as a 1-page PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/ContSedRem/ITRC-SedimentRemedyEvaluation.pdf.

Participants should also be familiar with the ITRC technology and regulatory guidance for Incorporating Bioavailability Considerations into the Evaluation of Contaminated Sediment Sites Website (CS-1, 2011) and associated Internet-based training that assists state regulators and practitioners with understanding and incorporating fundamental concepts of bioavailability in contaminated sediment management practices.

Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Sites contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and DNAPL mixtures present significant environmental challenges. Despite the decades spent on characterizing and attempting to remediate DNAPL sites, substantial risk remains. Inadequate characterization of site geology as well as the distribution, characteristics, and behavior of contaminants -- by relying on traditional monitoring well methods rather than more innovative and integrated approaches -- has limited the success of many remediation efforts.

The Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization Team has synthesized the knowledge about DNAPL site characterization and remediation acquired over the past several decades, and has integrated that information into a new document, Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization and Tools Selection (ISC-1, 2015). This guidance is a resource to inform regulators, responsible parties, other problem holders, consultants, community stakeholders, and other interested parties of the critical concepts related to characterization approaches and tools for collecting subsurface data at DNAPL sites. After this associated training, participants will be able to use the ITRC Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization and Tools Selection (ISC-1, 2015) guidance to develop and support an integrated approach to DNAPL site characterization, including:
  • Identify what site conditions must be considered when developing an informative DNAPL conceptual site model (CSM)
  • Define an objectives-based DNAPL characterization strategy
  • Understand what tools and resources are available to improve the identification, collection, and evaluation of appropriate site characterization data
  • Navigate the DNAPL characterization tools table and select appropriate technologies to fill site-specific data gaps
For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of Figure 4-1, the integrated site characterization flow diagram from the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance document: Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization and Tools Selection (ISC-1, 2015) and available as a PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/IDSC/ITRC-ISC-Figures.pdf.

Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment - A Resource When Alternatives to Default Parameters and Scenarios are Proposed

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Many state and local regulatory agencies responsible for the cleanup of chemicals released to the environment have adopted regulations, guidance and policies that define default approaches, scenarios, and parameters as a starting point for risk assessment and the development of risk-based screening values. Regulatory project managers and decision makers, however, may not have specific guidance when alternative approaches, scenarios, and parameters are proposed for site-specific risk assessments, and are faced with difficult technical issues when evaluating these site-specific risk assessments. This ITRC web-based document is a resource for project managers and decision makers to help evaluate alternatives to risk assessment default approaches, scenarios and parameters.

ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment (RISK-3, 2015) guidance document is different from existing ITRC Risk Assessment guidance and other state and federal resources because it identifies commonly encountered issues and discusses options in risk assessment when applying site-specific alternatives to defaults. In addition, the document includes links to resources and tools that provide even more detailed information on the specific issues and potential options. The ITRC Risk Assessment Team believes that state regulatory agencies and other organizations can use the RISK-3 document as a resource or reference to supplement their existing guidance. Community members and other stakeholders also may find this document helpful in understanding and using risk assessment information.

After participating in this ITRC training course, the learner will be able to apply ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk (RISK-3, 2015) document when developing or reviewing site-specific risk assessments by:
  • Identifying common issues encountered when alternatives to default parameters and scenarios are proposed during the planning, data evaluation, toxicity, exposure assessment, and risk characterization and providing possible options for addressing these issues
  • Recognizing the value of proper planning and the role of stakeholders in the development and review of risk assessments
  • Providing information (that includes links to additional resources and tools) to support decision making when alternatives to default approaches, scenarios and parameters are proposed
ITRC offers additional documents and training on risk management. ITRC's Use of Risk Assessment in Management of Contaminated Sites (RISK-2, 2008) and associated Internet-based training archive highlight variation of risk-based site management and describes how to improve the use of risk assessment for making better risk management decisions. ITRC's Examination of Risk-Based Screening Values and Approaches of Selected States (RISK-1, 2005) and associated Internet-based training archive focus on the process by which risk-based levels are derived in different states.

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Chemical contaminants in soil and groundwater can volatilize into soil gas and migrate through unsaturated soils of the vadose zone. Vapor intrusion (VI) occurs when these vapors migrate upward into overlying buildings through cracks and gaps in the building floors, foundations, and utility conduits, and contaminate indoor air. If present at sufficiently high concentrations, these vapors may present a threat to the health and safety of building occupants. Petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) is a subset of VI and is the process by which volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released as vapors from light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), petroleum-contaminated soils, or petroleum-contaminated groundwater migrate through the vadose zone and into overlying buildings. Fortunately, in the case of PHC vapors, this migration is often limited by microorganisms that are normally present in soil. The organisms consume these chemicals, reducing them to nontoxic end products through the process of biodegradation. The extent and rate to which this natural biodegradation process occurs is strongly influenced by the concentration of the vapor source, the distance the vapors must travel through soil from the source to potential receptors, and the presence of oxygen (O2) in the subsurface environment between the source and potential receptors.

The ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and this associated Internet-based training provides regulators and practitioners with consensus information based on empirical data and recent research to support PVI decision making under different regulatory frameworks. The PVI assessment strategy described in this guidance document enables confident decision making that protects human health for various types of petroleum sites and multiple PHC compounds. This guidance provides a comprehensive methodology for screening, investigating, and managing potential PVI sites and is intended to promote the efficient use of resources and increase confidence in decision making when evaluating the potential for vapor intrusion at petroleum-contaminated sites. By using the ITRC guidance document, the vapor intrusion pathway can be eliminated from further investigation at many sites where soil or groundwater is contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or where LNAPL is present.

After attending this ITRC Internet-based training, participants should be able to:
  • Determine when and how to use the ITRC PVI document at their sites
  • Describe the important role of biodegradation impacts on the PVI pathway (in contrast to chlorinated solvent contaminated sites)
  • Value a PVI conceptual site model (CSM) and list its key components
  • Apply the ITRC PVI 8 step decision process to screen sites for the PVI pathway and determine actions to take if a site does not initially screen out, (e.g., site investigation, modeling, and vapor control and site management)
  • Access fact sheets to support community engagement activities at each step in the process
For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of the flowcharts, Figures 1-2, 3-2, and 4-1 from the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and are available as a 3-page PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/PVI/ITRC-PVI-FlowCharts.pdf

Starting in late 2015, ITRC will offer a 2-day PVI focused classroom training at locations across the US. The classroom training will provide participants the opportunity to learn more in-depth information about the PVI pathway and practice applying the ITRC PVI guidance document with a diverse group of environmental professionals. Email training@itrcweb.org if you would like us to email you when additional information is available.